This document is a summary of the results of two major studies in residential water use undertaken by water retailers within metropolitan Melbourne. The first is a sampling survey of water using appliance stock and usage pattern in 2012. The second consists of the measurement of the flow rates of individual end uses to a high resolution for a sample of customers in 2010 and 2012. The appliance survey relied primarily on self-reports for usage behaviours from large, statistically valid samples. The end use measurement study monitored actual flow rates, timings and frequencies of appliance usage amongst a small sample of customers.