This work by the Environment Agency presents a review of methods used to estimate domestic per capita consumption (PCC) of water. It focuses on countries with lower average PCC than England and Wales while having similar climates and economies. The reported PCC values were analysed based on several parameters including metering and water charges. The review indicates major differences between the water sectors in the reviewed countries and in England and Wales, particularly in what regards the extent of metering and scale of demand management measures. Water companies in England and Wales are recommended to adopt the ‘twin track approach’, reducing demand as well as increasing supply when developing their WRMPs.