Greenhouse gas emissions of water supply and demand management options (2008)

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This project by the Environment Agency examines differences in CO2 emissions associated with a variety of options for supplying and using water more efficiently. Based on a newly developed methodology, the study assesses new water supply options, working with an existing water supply network, plus methods and products to reduce and manage households’ water demand. It reveals that 89 % of CO2 emissions in the water supply system are caused by domestic water use, whereas public water supply and treatment account for 11 %. It concludes that simple demand management measures, particularly those which reduce hot water use, can have significant potential to reduce energy and CO2 emissions.